Algonquian tribes and their names
I've identified 45 tribes or sub-tribes who are part of the Algonquian linguistic group. (from the word "alligewinenk" which means "come together from distant places.") I am certain there are many others. The Algonquian-speaking (linguistic) groups include:
- Abnaki, meaning Morning or Sunrise or People of the East [Abenaki, Abenaquis, Abanaki, Abenakis, AlnÃ´bak, Wabanaki] Their language is called Alnombak or Aln8bak (8 is a Jesuit symbol for a nasalized, unrounded 'o'.) Call themselves Alnombak meaning "the People". Were members of the Wabanaki Confederacy, along with the Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, Mi'kmaq, and the Penobscot, adversaries of the Iroquois. Previously located in the New England area (of the US) and currently in Quebec, Connecticut and Massachusetts.
- Algonkin or Algonqiun or Weskarini (water people), Previously of the Ottawa River, now mostly found in Canada. (Algonkin/Algonquin, not to be confused with Algonkian/Algonquian, which is the entire language family. Algonkin is the people whose lands lie within the Ottawa Valley.)
- Amikwa, meaning people of the Beaver, [Amicouas, Amicoues, Amikouas, Amikouets, Amiqouis]. [ Could be Illinois or Illinoetz?] Illiniwek (ih-lih-new-eck), which means "the best people." ? Still trying to determine exactly who this group is.
- Arapaho, (north and south) [Arapahoe or Arrapahoe] called themselves Inuna-Ina (Hinonoeino), 'our people'. Closely related to the Gros Ventre, who were at one time part of this group. Currently found in Wyoming. Victims of the Sand Creek massacre of 1864, one of the worse massacres in American history.
- Attikamekw, [Attikameks, Atikameks, Atikamekw or Tête-de-Boule]. Previously and currently of the Quebec area, having not been displaced.
- Beothuk [Beothuck, Skraeling, Red Indian] (extinct) aboriginal inhabitants of Newfoundland when European arrived, being the first group the europeans encountered. Use of Ochre (a red dye) resulted in the Europeans calling them "Red Man", a term which was applied to native Americans, in a derogatory and racist epithet. Theorized to be of Norse descent, but probable of Innu or Mi'Kmaq.
- Blackfoot, Blackfeet, Siksika (which means Blackfoot, referring to the dark color of the mocassins), Kainah (or Bloods), and Piegan/Peigan. Of Alberta, Canada and in Montana.
- Cheyenne, call themselves Tsitsistas, "the people." (named by the Dakota word hiyenan meaning red talkers), lived previously in Minnesota to the Missouri River, now in Montana and Oklahoma. Along with their closest allies, the Arapahoes, victims of the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864.
- Chitamacha, [Chetimacha, Chettimanchi, Chitamacha, Chittamacha, Shetimasha, Shyoutemancha, Tchetimanchan] from their own language "Pantch Pinankanc".
- Fox, name for themselves, Meskwaki [Mesquakie or Mesquaki] Meaning "red earth people." aka Reynard, Musquakies and Outagamies. Related to the Sauk or Sak, previously of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Currently on Reservations in Oklahoma, Kansas and Iowa
- Gros Ventres, name for themselves Anai, meaning White Clay People. Currently on reservation at Fort Belnap. Mt. sharing the reservation with the Assiniboine. Incorrectly called Rapid Indians, Willow Indians, Atsinas, Big Bellies, and Waterfall Indians. Was part of the Arapahoe Nation until sometime around the 1600s. "Grow Vaunt" means "big belly" in French, referring to their appetite??
- Illini, name for themselves Illiniwek (ih-lih-new-eck), means "the best people." Formerly of Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa, now of Kansas and on the Peoria Reservation in Oklahoma.
- Kickapoo [Kikapu, Kikapoo] Comes from Shawnee word for meaning "wanderer" or "he who moves about". Previously of Wisconsin and Upper Michigan, currently on reservations in Kansas and Oklahoma.
- Kiristinons, [Kilistinons, Kristinaux, Cree] call themselves Ayisiniwok, Iyiniwok or
- Ininiwok, Eenou, Iynu, or Eeyou, meaning "the people," or Nehiyawok, "speakers of the Cree language," more commonly known as Cree. Can be found in Canada, North Dakota, and Montana and have blood relatives among the Metis people.
- Lenape or Leni-lenape "True People". Often referred to as the Delaware/Delewars Previously found in the New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and along the Delaware River. Currently New Jersey, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania and on reservation in Oklahoma. Also found in Ontario.
- Lumbee, [Croatan, Croatoan, Pamlico, Carolina Algonquian] mixed bloods whose ancestors include Cheraw, Tuscarora, and Croatan Indians, many African-Americans (runaway slaves). Found in the Carolinas.
- Mahican ,"Mahican" comes from the word Muheconneok, "from the waters that are never still" (referring to the Hudson River). Mahicans and Mohegans are not and never have been the same tribe. Natives of New York region, currently found in Wisconsin.
- Maliseet [Malecite, Malecites, Malisit] Name for themselves is Wolastoqiyik, referring to the river running through their homeland. Maliseet is a Mi'kmaq word for "talks imperfectly." Previously, and still located in Canada, mostly New Brunswick, and a band in Maine. Belonged to the confederation of eastern Indians known as the Wabanaki Alliance, together with the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Mi'kmaq, and Abenaki Indians.
- Menominee [Menomini] called themselves Mamaceqtaw, but their Algonquian relatives called them Menomini, "wild-rice people". Previously of Wisconsin and upper Michigan, currently found in Wisconsin.
- Métis, French word meaning mixed bloods descendants of many of the Algonquian speaking natives and the French, Scot, and other European groups Dating back to the arrival of the first Europeans. Their language is called Michif. Can mostly be found in Canada and the northern USA, but are scattered throughout the world. [Mitchif, Metis Creole, French Cree]
- Miami, [Miami, Piankashaw, and Wea.] Name for themselves is Myaamia, which means "allies. Originally in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio, removed to Oklahoma, and Indiana.
- Mi'Kmaq [Mi'kmawi'simk, Mi'kmaw, Micmac, Mikmaq] Called themselves Lnu'k (or L'nu'k), the people. "Mi'kmaq" comes from a word in their own language meaning "my friends" or "Cour alliés". Previously of the Great Lakes to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Currently in Québec, New Brunswick and Maine.
- Mississaugas, sub-tribe of the Ojibway, located in southern Ontario. Called Mississauga by European settlers because they traded along the Mississagi River in central Ontario, Canada, which originates at the head of Lake Huron.
- Mohegan, [Pequot, Montauk, Niantic, Metoac] comes from the word Mahiingan, "wolf." Natives of New York State region. Are not extinct as portrayed in James Fenimore Cooper's novel "Last of the Mohicans,". Also known as the Stockbridge Indians of Massachusetts. Currently in Wisconsin, on a joint reservation with the Munsee Indians.
- Montagnais Innu, [Innu-Aimun, Innu Aionun] French for "mountaineer." Currently in Labrador and Quebec. Not related to the Inuit.
- Muskhogean Family: Choctaw, Creeks, Chickasaw, Alabama, Koasati, Miccusukee, Hitchiti, Creek, Seminole
- Narragansett, closely related to the Mohegans and Wampanoag. Currently in Rhode Island, Connecticut and Long Island.
- Naskapi Innu, same people as the Montagnais, although living in different areas, and dressing differently. Montagnais word for "lousy dressers." Currently in Labrador and Quebec.
- Nanticoke, (Southern Delawares) related to the Munsee and Lenape, the latter whom they consider they elder kin. Took in many of the escaped slaves. Previously of Chesapeake Bay and Delaware, where some remain today.
- Nipissing [Nepcinqui, Nepissing, Nipercinean] of Ojibway descent. Biissing translation is "little water". Called the "Nation of the Sorcerers" by the French. Of Lake Nipsissing. Found in Montreal and Ontario.
- Ojibwa (Ojibway [Odgiboweke, Odjibewais,], Bungi/Bungee Ojibway (Michif?), Anishnabe, Anishinabe, Anishnabeg, Meaning "Spontaneous Man" Chippewa [Chipeways, Chippewais], Pahouitingonach, Saulteaux [Saulteurs, Sauteurs]: meaning "people of the Sault or Rapids". One of the largest tribes living in the Great Lakes region.
- Ottawa (Odahwaug), meaning to trade, of the Great Lakes. Completely independent of their close Ojibway relations, although they speak the same language. Also referred to themselves as Anishinaabe. Along with the Ojibway and Potawatomi, members of the alliance Council of the Three Fires. Previously of the Lake Huron region, currently of Michigan, Ontario and Oklahoma.
- Passamaquoddy, [Peskotomuhkati] speakers of two dialects Passamaquoddy and Maliseet. Both tribes were referred to by the French as "Etchimins," although they are independent of each other. Members of the Wabanaki Alliance. Primarily in Maine, and a small band lives in New Brunswick.
- Penobscot, [Eastern Abnaki, Penawahpskewi, Penobscott] Members of the Wabanaki Alliance. Mostly found today in Maine.
- Powhatan [Powatan, Powhaten, Powhatan Confederacy] Also known as the Virginia Algonkian. Wahunsunacock, better-known as Chief Powhatan, named after the lands she called "Powhatan Empire", the father of Pocahontas. After the marriage of daughter to one of the settlers to ensure peace, but both father and daughter died prematurely. Some remain today in Virginia, other fled north to seek refuge with the Lenape in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
- Potawatomi [Nishnabek, Pottawatomie, Pottawatomi] properly spelled "Bode'wadmi", though it is rarely spelt that way . Means "he who keeps fire", referring to their role in the Council of the Three Fires. Name for themselves is "Nishnabek" similar to Ojibway word "Anishinabeg." Previously of Lake Huron and Wisconsin, currently living in Kansas and Oklahoma, although some fled into the Canada side of the Great Lakes.
- Sauk, [Sak, Sac, Asakiwaki,] means "yellow earth people." Previously of the northeastern US, then the Great Lakes region (Michigan and Wisconsin), now found in Oklahoma, Kansas and Iowa.
- Shawnee [Shawano, Savannah, Sewanee, Chaouanons by early trader Perrot] meaning southerner, but the traveled a great deal, from the south east to west and north west. Leader Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa attempted to unite the eastern tribes with the idea of Indian unity. Called the Lenape "Grandfather". Previously of Ohio and Pennsylvania, also small communities in NY and as far south as Georgia but as many other victims of Indian removal, can be now found in Oklahoma.
- Tamaroa of the St Louis region, near former site of Cahokia. Members of the Illini Confederacy.
- Tonkawa, "tonkawea," meaning "staying together," call themselves "Titskan-Watich Meaning "indigenous men." In 1719, the French and Spanish described them as one of the "roving nations" in the upper Red River region. Found today in Oklahoma, previously found in Texas. Although this tribe is listed as an Algonkian language, still trying to verify this. They could be part of the Gulf region language group.
- Wampanoag [Massachusett, Natick, Massassoit, Nantucket, Mashpee] (nearly extinct language.) Befriended the Pilgrims of Plymouth, bringing them food to help them with the winter at what is called today "The First Thanksgiving", soon after they were displaced from their native lands by these same people. Enticed with alcohol, signed over their land. Metacomet, known as "King Philip" tried to have this sale overturned but resulted in a way. The British won and many of the Wampanoags were sold into slavery. Forbade the use of the Massachusett language and tribal names. Some still residing in Plymouth County.
- Wappinger, 9 tribes of Wappinger proper are: Manhattan, Wecquaesgeek, Sintsink, Kitchawank, Tankiteke, Nochpeem, Siwanoy, Mattabesec. Previously of the Hudson River from Manhattan Island to what is now Poughkeepsie and eastward to the lower Connecticut River valley but because of warring with the Dutch and other tribes of the region, assimilated into other Algonkian tribes in the US and Canada. Relations of the Mohicans.
- Wiyot [Weott, Sulateluk] of Northwest coast of California, merged with allies and closest Neighbors, the Yurok. Victims of the Gold Rush, when so-called local thug, Hank Larrabee (even by white miners) stormed Indian Island with a few followers while the Wiyot women and children were preparing for a sacred ceremonies and murdered every child in the tribe but one.
- Yurok of Northern California. Neither the Yurok nor the Wiyot are not related to other Tribes of Northern Californa. Previously lived near the mouth of the Klamath River, near the Pacific. "Yurok" means, in fact, "downriver," by their previous neighbors, the Keroks (not an Algonkian language). Also victims to the Gold Rush. Merged with the Wiyots.
Research by Brenda Snider 2006 ** Please noteMy purpose in this research, was to follow the migration of the band of Indians that would become what is known today as the Little Shell Chippewa Indians of Montana, therefore, this is not the complete history of the Chippewa - OJibwa - Saulteaux. Nor is it meant to be.
The above list is a compilation of the following sources:http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/indian8.htm
http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/ (Native American Languages)
http://www.native-languages.org (Native Languages. Org)
The Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and Region of the Great Lakes; Translated, edited, annotated, and with
Bibliography and Index by Emma Helen Blair
This note was sent me by Brenda Snider when I asked her if I could place her work on my website:I don't mind but it is a work in progress and far from complete, and part of a larger project...
... I would hate to give anyone the impression it's more than just my own personal list of tribes - not really for educational purposes. As long as you let folks know it is a work in progress, it's fine with me.